Hypothyroidism: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

If your thyroid doesn’t produce and release sufficient thyroid hormone into your bloodstream, you may have hypothyroidism. This slows down your metabolic rate. In addition to feeling weary and gaining weight, hypothyroidism may also make you unable to endure cold temperatures. Treatment for hypothyroidism usually includes the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

There are two thyroid glands, one on each side, of the windpipe in the front of the neck, underneath the larynx, or voice box.

Hormones are produced by special cells in this gland, which is part of the endocrine system. Organs and tissues receive information from the body’s hormones, which are chemical messengers that control processes like metabolism, growth and mood. The pituitary gland makes a hormone called thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that controls how much thyroid hormone is made.

The hypothalamus, a part of the brain, is in charge of all of this. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ensures that the body has enough thyroid hormones to fulfil its demands.

In this article, you will know the causes, symptoms and available treatments for Hypothyroidism.

Hypothyroidism Symptoms 

As the extent of thyroid hormone deficiency increases, so do the signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism. It is common for problems to develop over a long period.

The symptoms of hypothyroidism, like fatigue and weight gain, may go unnoticed at first. You could also blame your aches and pains on ageing. However, if your metabolism continues to decline, you may begin to notice more obvious health issues.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism include:

Dry skin

Gaining weight


Weakness of muscles

Thinning hair

Slow heart rate


Memory impairment


Increase in cold sensitivity


Enlarged thyroid gland (goitre)

Having a high blood cholesterol level

Pain, tenderness, and stiffness in muscles

Inflammation or stiffness in your joints

Menstrual cycles that are heavier or more irregular than normal

Hypothyroidism Causes

Hypothyroidism can take place if the thyroid gland does not function properly, or if the hypothalamus or pituitary gland does not stimulate the thyroid gland properly. As the severity of hypothyroidism increases, signs and symptoms may include swelling around the eyes, a slower heart rhythm, a decrease in body warmth, and heart failure. A life-threatening coma may result from severe hypothyroidism (myxedema coma). In patients with severe hypothyroidism, myxedema coma is typically caused by severe sickness, surgery, stress, or physical injury. Myxedema coma necessitates hospitalisation and urgent treatment with thyroid hormones administered through injection.

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, or autoimmune thyroiditis, is another name for Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. In Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, the immune system attacks the body’s cells and organs in autoimmune disease.

As a result of this condition’s immune system attack on the thyroid gland, it becomes inflamed and unable to produce thyroid hormones as it should.

Congenital hypothyroidism

A condition is known as congenital hypothyroidism in which the thyroid gland is unable to function normally from birth.

If detected early enough, these problems with physical and mental development can be avoided.

Imbalance in iodine

To produce thyroid hormones, the body needs iodine, but the level must be maintained. An excess or deficiency of iodine can be the cause of Hypothyroidism.


Thyroid hormone production can be hampered by a wide range of medications. LIthium, amiodarone, interferon-alpha, interleukin-2, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors are some of the medicines that can be used.

Deficiencies in the pituitary gland

Thyroid hormone production may be compromised if the pituitary gland ceases to function properly. Having pituitary tumours or having surgery on the pituitary gland can harm the thyroid gland’s function.

Sheehan’s syndrome is a condition characterised by harm to the pituitary gland.

A woman’s pituitary gland can be damaged and stop producing enough pituitary hormones if she experiences life-threatening blood loss or low blood pressure during or after childbirth.

Thyroid removal surgery

Hypothyroidism can occur if your entire thyroid gland is surgically removed due to a thyroid disorder. The mainstay of treatment is a long-term regimen of thyroid medication.

If only a part of the gland is removed, your thyroid might be able to make sufficient hormones by itself. The amount of thyroid medication you may require will be determined by a series of blood tests.


Treatment for hypothyroidism focuses on boosting the thyroid hormone supply. Doctors are currently unable to permanently cure hypothyroidism, but they can help most patients manage their symptoms.

Synthetic thyroxine

To restore levels, doctors typically prescribe synthetic thyroxine, a medicine equal to the T4 hormone. Doctors may advise patients to take this first thing in the morning before eating.

The patient’s medical history, symptoms, and current TSH level are used to determine dosage. The dosage of synthetic T4 will be adjusted as necessary based on the results of blood tests performed regularly by the patient’s doctor.

However, blood tests are likely to become less frequent as time passes, even though monitoring will continue.

Iodine and nutrition

The thyroid relies on iodine for proper functioning. Goitre, or an abnormally enlarged thyroid gland, can be caused by a variety of factors, the most common of which is a lack of iodine.

Iodine is essential for most people, while those with autoimmune thyroid disease may be especially sensitive to its effects, resulting in hypothyroidism being triggered or worsened.

A high-fibre diet or a diet high in soy or green vegetables should always be discussed with your doctor if you have hypothyroidism.

Thyroid medication can be affected by a person’s diet. The need for iodine rises dramatically during pregnancy. Maintaining adequate iodine levels can be accomplished through the consumption of iodized salt and prenatal vitamins.

Talk to a doctor online to properly manage your hypothyroidism. With proper treatment thyroid hormone levels can return to normal.

Alternate treatments

Natural extracts containing thyroid hormone obtained from pig thyroid glands are available, even though most doctors recommend synthetic thyroxine. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine are both present in these formulations. Thyroxine is the only ingredient in synthetic thyroid medications, and your body gets its triiodothyronine from thyroxine.

Prescriptions are required for extracts, which are distinct from the glandular concentrates sold in health food stores. The potency and purity of these products cannot be guaranteed because they are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration.

Final Thoughts

Here’s what you need to know ahead of time to prepare for your meeting with your doctor.

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